Where is the line between infrastructure and socialism?

Where do you, personally, draw the line between infrastructure and socialism?

Merriam Webster dictionary definition of infrasctructure, the system of public works of a country, etc.I ask this sincerely, with no desire to engage in polarized internet snipe-fests, but in the spirit of attentiveness to what government services various individuals might deem “necessary” and which are “overreach.”

Even more interesting than the what, is the why.

Only deep ignorance of history allows one to pretend there’s anything universal about this question. Our republican forebears in Rome—whose architecture we aped in the United States capitol in part due to the Founding Fathers’ lionization of that civilization—prioritized very different governmental interventions than we do today.

Proving myself, as always, a true dilettante and no real scholar, I’ll begin by pointing to a series of mystery novelsthat I read years ago. They turned me on to a startling fact: the ancient Romans had no police force.

police car parked at justice centerRome, civilization par excellence, did not feel that it owed average citizens the protection of civil police. The military kept order to an extent that suited the needs of the state, but there was no one to call when your silver was stolen. It wasn’t until the great republic became an empire that Augustus formed the Praetorian Guard in 27 BCE… to protect himself.

And all this in spite of the fact that the Ancient Greek city of Athens had seen the nascent formation of a police force (c. 400 BCE) to keep order and arrest and manage prisoners using publicly owned Scythian slaves. Investigating and detecting crime, in the ancient world, was the responsibility of individual free citizens.

So, is a police force a basic piece of infrastructure, a right that should be available to all, or is investigation and detection by paid government agents an imposition against individual freedoms as the Romans seemed to believe?

In spite of our turbulent times and the fraught political environment, I’ll admit it: I think this is a fascinating question. In a democracy, it is, in fact, the duty of every citizen to ponder these essential assumptions.

Do modern American people on the right and on the left really have such different ideas about what a government ought to do, or are our differences more about degree and descriptive nomenclature?

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Paper map to plan rail adventure: Rick Steves vs. Streetwise Europe for travel

I am well aware of the fact that there are maps on my phone. I use the internet constantly when planning trips. I also love good old-fashioned paper maps.

I wanted a map of Europe with specific details for planning rail travel. I’d narrowed it down to two brands readily available on Amazon.com, but couldn’t find a single review comparing them both. Today, I’ll try to remedy that for other cartophiles or Luddites with European dreams.

I’ll be comparing the Streetwise Laminated Europe & Major Rail Lines with Rick Steves Europe Planning Map.

Europe map rail train trip plan compare Streetwise vs Rick StevesI specifically chose to assess laminated or coated paper maps that resist tears and spills because those make the most sense for the rigors of travel. Murphy’s Law suggests that we are most likely to get lost after the downpour begins; I’d like my map to function regardless of the weather.

I have also, on occasion, been known to knock over a glass of wine or slosh coffee as the trip planning process gets me all keyed up. The caffeine and alcohol might also factor in this scenario, but I do tend to be excitable even in the absence of stimulants.

Once travel has commenced, I pick up free, local tourist maps commonly available in major tourist centers to get my bearings in a new town. I refer to my phone for turn by turn directions to specific addresses. Still, there is something about taking the large view on an unfolded map that feels like a first step into a journey.

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